Bihar History and Culture in English

Known as the “Land of Buddha” and the “Land of Enlightenment,” Bihar is a state in eastern India that has a rich and varied history that is comparable to the Indian subcontinent. The state’s strong ties to Buddhism are highlighted by the name “Vihara,” which is derived from the word for monasteries. This was especially true during the reign of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka in the third century BCE. Bihar is a well-liked travel destination for Buddhist pilgrims from all over the world because of its historical significance.

The history of he is not limited to Buddhism; its origins can be seen in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Being the location of one of the first residential institutions in the world, Nalanda University, which draws academics and students from all over the world, it was also a significant hub for learning and research.

FormationOn March 22, 1992
StatehoodOn March 22, 1992
GovernorRajendra Arlekar
Chief MinisterNitish Kumar
Deputy Chief MinisterTejashwi Yadav
Official languageBhojpuri
Other language Hindi, Urdu, Awadhi, Maithili, Devanagari scripts
Major religionsHinduism and Islam, Christians, Sikhs, Buddshist, Jaina and Jews
Area94,163 km2(square kilometers )
Gender Ratio918/1000( per thousand)
Literacy rate68.15%
male(70.32%) and female( 53.57%)
GDP(2023-24)₹8.59 lakh crore
High CourtPatna
Lok Sabha members40 seats
Rajya Sabha members16 seats
Vidhan Sabha members243 seats
Vidhan Parishad members75 seats
Cities and Towns261
Nagar Nigam10
State AnimalGaur
State BirdHouse Sparrow
State emblemBodhi Tree with prayer beads, flanked by two swastikas
State FishWalking catfish (Clarias batrachus)
State TreePeepal tree
State FlowersKachnar
State FruitMango
Major cropsRice, wheat, and maize are the major cereal crops. Arhar, urad, moong, gram, pea, lentils
Major mineralsAsbestos, Bauxite, Beryllium, China Clay (Kaolinite),Coal, Feldspar, Fire Clay,Galena,Gold,Granite,Iron-ore,Limestone,Manganese,Mica,Monazite,Pyrite
Major handicraftsMadhubani Paintings, Sujini and Khatwa Embroidery, Sikki grass craf,Bamboo and Cane Craft, Pottery Craft,Printed Textiles
Major riversRiver Ganga, River Gandak, River Ghaghara, River Koshi ,River PunPun
Folk dancesJat-Jatin Dance , Bidesia Dance, Jhijhiya Dance, Karma Dance,Kajari Dance, Chhau Dance, Paika Dance
Historical PlaceGolghar, Sher Shah Suri Tomb, Nalanda Mahavihara, Barabar Caves, Patna Museum, Rohtasgarh Fort, Agam Kuan,Bihar Museum, Mahatma Gandhi Setu,Vishwa Shanti Stupa, Rajgir,Mahabodhi Temple,Ajatshatru Fort,Ashokan Pillar,Bodhi Tree,Padri Ki Haveli

The diversity of the state’s cultures is equally fascinating. Speaking languages like Magahi, Bhojpuri, and Maithili, He is a linguistic melting pot. The region is well-known for its own artistic expressions, including as the lively Chhau dance and the elaborate Madhubani paintings.

In addition, Bihar’s food offers a wide variety of delectable delicacies, such as the well-known Litti Chokha and the wholesome Sattu. Its festivals—Chhath Puja, in particular—are eagerly observed and provide a window into the rich customs of the state.

Historical Perspective of Bihar

The eastern Indian state of Bihar has a long and rich history that goes back thousands of years. Due to its historical significance, which is entwined with the subcontinent’s overall history, it serves as a central point of reference for comprehending the development of Indian culture.

  • One of the earliest urban cultures in history, the Indus Valley Civilization, is linked to Bihar. The historical origins of the area are demonstrated by the discoveries made at archaeological sites in Chirand and Sultanganj. However, the Mauryan Empire, which ruled from the fourth to the second century BCE, is linked to Bihar’s most notable historical era. The Mauryan Empire expanded its dominance over most of India under Emperor Ashoka’s reign, and it was crucial to the development of Buddhism.
  • The development of Buddhism and the founding of Nalanda University, one of the first residential universities in the world, are two notable aspects of Bihar’s medieval past. Nalanda was a center of study that drew academics from all over the world. It significantly advanced the disciplines of astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy. In addition, the area saw the effects of Mughal dominion and other dynasties, which left their marks on Bihar’s architecture and culture.
  • He saw numerous socioeconomic upheavals and transformations throughout the colonial era. Leaders like Jayaprakash Narayan, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, and Mahatma Gandhi sprang from the area, and it was vital to the Indian independence cause. Bihar’s history will never be the same because of its part in the independence movement.

Cultural Diversity of Bihar

The eastern Indian state of Bihar is home to a diverse range of cultures. Its historical significance and the coming together of many linguistic, religious, and ethnic groups are the causes of this variety. The following are some significant facets of Bihar’s diverse culture:

  • There are several different languages spoken in Bihar, with Hindi being the most common. Additionally, different parts of the state have speakers of Bhojpuri, Maithili, Magahi, and Angika. The centuries-long blending of several ethnic groups is reflected in this linguistic diversity.
  • Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Christianity are among the many religions that coexist in Bihar. Bihar is a symbol of religious harmony since the state’s holy places, such Bodh Gaya and Gaya, are extremely important to people of all religions.
  • Folk arts and crafts in Bihar are regionally specific. This state gives birth to the famous art form known as Madhubani painting, or Mithila painting. These paintings’ elaborate patterns and vivid colors depict the diversity of Bihar’s cultures and religions.
  • Bihar is well-known for its assortment of celebrations, such as Sama Chakeva, Sonepur Mela, and Chhath Puja. These festivities frequently exhibit a fusion of cultural practices, customs, and rituals, resulting in a distinct cultural environment.
  • The Bihari people’s traditional clothing also reflects the diversity of their cultures. Women decorate themselves in sarees, with variations in draping styles and motifs based on regional influences, while males usually wear kurtas and dhotis.

Read: Uttar Pradesh Culture and History in English

Cuisine of Bihar

Bihar History and Culture in English

The food of Bihar offers a delicious culinary adventure into the core of North Indian flavors and customs. Bihari cuisine, which has its origins firmly ingrained in rural agrarian life, is renowned for its wonderful meals that have withstood the test of time, simplicity, and the use of locally available ingredients.

A quintessential Bihari dish is “Litti Chokha.” Round wheat flour balls called litti are baked over an open flame or in an earthen oven with roasted gram flour, ghee, and spices within. Traditionally, these are eaten with chokha, a spicy mashed vegetable dish made with tomatoes, roasted eggplant, and other in-season vegetables. In addition to being a mainstay in Bihari homes, this combination represents the state’s extensive culinary history.

Another culinary treasure from the Bihari region is sattu, a flour prepared from roasted gram (chana) that is utilized in a wide range of recipes. It is used to make Sattu Sherbet, a cool beverage prepared with Sattu flour, water, and spices, and Sattu Paratha, a kind of filled flatbread.

A variety of sweets and desserts are also featured in Bihar’s cuisine; dishes like “Khaja,” a flaky sweet pastry, and “Thekua,” a deep-fried sweet snack, are particularly well-liked during festivals and other special occasions.

In addition to being excellent, Bihari food highlights the usage of locally grown grains and vegetables, reflecting the state’s agrarian history. It is a cuisine that is a must-try for everyone wishing to experience the gastronomic diversity of India because it provides a taste of tradition and a strong connection to the place.

Landmarks and Tourist Attractions of Bihar

Eastern Indian state of Bihar is well-known for its rich cultural legacy and history, but it’s also home to a wide variety of sites and tourist destinations that provide a fascinating fusion of the old and new. The following are a few of the noteworthy locations that draw tourists to Bihar:

  • Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, obtained enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in the holy city of Bodh Gaya. Travelers and pilgrims swarm to the Mahabodhi Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, to take in the place’s historical significance and tranquil atmosphere.
  • Nalanda is well-known for its historic Nalanda University, a preeminent hub of learning in the fifth century CE. Scholars and historical buffs visit the university’s ruins today.
  • The capital city of Bihar, Patna, is a dynamic fusion of the past and present. One of the holiest places in Sikhism, the Patna Sahib Gurudwara, the Golghar Granary, and the Patna Museum are open for exploration by visitors.
  • Historically significant, this city served as the center of the Magadha empire. Two must-see sights are the historic Nalanda ruins and the Vishwa Shanti Stupa.
  • Home to important Jain temples and historical landmarks, Vaishali is also the birthplace of Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism.
  • This location honors Bihar’s Buddhist past and is home to the Kesaria Stupa, one of the highest Buddhist stupas in the world.
  • Lord Mahavira obtained nirvana in this tranquil town. Top attractions are the Samosharan temples and the Jal Mandir.

Explore India’s history and spirituality with a unique opportunity offered by Bihar’s tourism sites and landmarks. he has a lot to offer travelers of all stripes, including history enthusiasts, spiritual seekers, and vacationers looking to explore new experiences.

Contemporary of Bihar

The state of Bihar in eastern India has changed significantly in the last few years. It is a state that aspires to become a center of development, education, and cultural revival rather than maintain its reputation as a historically rural and impoverished state.

The emphasis on education in modern Bihar is one of its notable innovations. The state has made significant investments in infrastructure and educational institutions. The ancient learning center Nalanda University has been resurrected to support research and higher education. The government of Bihar has also started a number of programs to raise the state’s literacy rate and improve schooling.

In the areas of industry and technology, the state is likewise progressing. The IT sector is expanding in the nation’s capital, Patna, as more businesses establish operations there. The state’s economy is steadily growing and job possibilities are being created by this tech-driven expansion.

Furthermore, he is making a concerted effort to protect and promote its rich cultural legacy. The state government and regional associations are emphasizing the preservation of the Bhojpuri language, supporting regional celebrations, and bringing back traditional arts and crafts. The people’s pleasure in this cultural renaissance extends to its potential as a tourism draw.


In summary,he is a distinct and noteworthy state in India’s past. The powerful Mauryan Empire, the deep influence of Buddhism, and the rise of important figures in the Indian independence movement are just a few examples of the country’s rich and varied past. Boasting a multitude of languages, arts, crafts, and customs that have developed over centuries, Bihar’s cultural tapestry is equally enthralling.

The state’s food, which includes delicacies like the wholesome Sattu and Litti Chokha, shows the region’s gastronomic diversity and agricultural wealth. Sites like Bodh Gaya, Nalanda, and Patna provide insight into Bihar’s history, from its origins as the cradle of Buddhism to its function as a hub for education.

Despite socioeconomic obstacles, Bihar’s future is being improved via continued efforts and initiatives. It is essential to protect and revitalize its distinct cultural legacy in order to guarantee the survival of customs, languages, and artistic expressions.

In conclusion, heis a thriving center of culture and customs in addition to being a historical treasure trove. Investigating Bihar’s past and present may be a very enlightening experience, providing understanding of the foundations of Indian civilization and the tenacity of its people. It’s a voyage well worth taking to really grasp the spirit of this amazing state.


1. What is the significance of Bodh Gaya in Bihar’s history and culture?

As a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the site of Lord Buddha’s enlightenment, Bodh Gaya is an important spiritual and cultural landmark.

2. What are some traditional Bihari dishes?

Thekua, Sattu Paratha, and Litti Chokha are a few of Bihar’s traditional and delicious cuisines.

3. How has Bihar contributed to Indian literature?

Notable authors have come from Bihar, such as the well-known Maithili poet Vidyapati.

4. What is Chhath Puja, and why is it celebrated in Bihar?

Bihar celebrates Chhath Puja, a holiday dedicated to worshiping the sun, with considerable zeal. It’s a moment when folks worship by the riverfront to the setting sun

Read: Indira Gandhi Biography in English

Hello friends, My name is Satish Kumar Pal. I am as a Data Scientist and Python developer with 2+ years of broad-based experience in building data-intensive applications ,overcoming complex architectural and scalability issues in diverse industries. Proficient in predictive modeling, data processing and data mining algorithms as well as scripting languages including python. capable of creating , developing, testing and deploying.

Leave a Comment